Archive for August, 2007

God Disposes the Lot the Same Way Twice

August 31, 2007

Or, why one should not assume that arguments from probabilty provide truth: link.
Sometimes God arranges it that unexpected things happen. What is probably even more surprising to the average Joe is that this is not the first time something like this has happened: it’s the third time a jackpot winner has won a second jackpot in New York Lotto history.

None of the above should be misconstrued as encouraging people to gamble.

Work for a living, don’t throw money down the drain hoping to get something for nothing.

May God give us diligence,


Several Birds with One Stone

August 30, 2007

The following passage of Scripture addresses several topics that have come up lately in this author’s work on the blog.

First, it relates to soteriology generally, and thus can be addressed toward the challenge I have already issued.

Second, it relates to human merit, and thus can be addressed to Godith’s comments regarding the RCC.

Third, it relates to another topic that I have been working on, for this blog, but have not presented yet. That topic will be a long time in coming. Nevertheless, this tidbit for now.

Having discussed his faithful adherence to the outward constraints of the law of Moses, Paul continues with the passage under discussion:

Philippians 3:7-14
7But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. 8Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, 9And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith: 10That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death; 11If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead. 12Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect: but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. 13Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, 14I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.

In this passage, Paul speaks of the inadequacy of man’s “righteousness.” Paul was a zealous adherent of the most outwardly strict sect of the Jews. His outward adherence to the Mosaic law began on the eighth day of his life with circumcision, and continued with unparallel zeal until his vision on the road to Damascus. Nevertheless, all that “righteousness” Paul considers dung.

If verse 7 were the last verse of the discussion, many who hold to a view of work’s righteousness salvation would be content. “The works of Judaism – they were the problem,” such folks might say. That, however, is not Paul’s point.

Paul clarifies by stating that he considers everything loss (i.e. a negative) because the knowledge of His Lord Jesus Christ is exceeding it. Paul explains that for Christ Paul lost (i.e. subtracted) everything and considers all such dung, so that he can obtain Christ and be found in Christ.

At this point it is worth taking a brief excursis to explain what Paul means. What does he mean by “to be found in Christ”? Paul is referring to the day of judgment, when men will be judged as either worthy of eternal life, or of eternal death. Paul is willing to give up all earthly righteousness in order to be found in Christ on that day. And what does it mean to be found in Christ? It means to have Christ’s righteousness on one’s account.

As Paul explains, he wants to be found in Christ, not having his own (i.e. Paul’s) righteousness (depending on obedience to the commands of the law), but that righteousness of Christ that comes through faith, in other words, the righteousness that is of God and by faith:

– the knowledge of Christ and the power of his resurrection
– the fellowship of his suffering
– assimilation into his death

so that, in that way, he can arrive at the resurrection of the dead.

But Paul is quick to point out that Paul has not arrived and is not perfect at the present time. (Wesleyean perfectionists, beware) Instead, Paul states that he chases, so that he may grasp the thing for which he is being grasped by Jesus Christ.

In other words, contrary to the assertions of the RCCs and the consistent Arminians, Paul is not saying that he is perfect now, but may risk falling away later, instead Paul is saying that his sanctification is not complete. He has not been resurrected with Christ.

Nevertheless, Paul is confident that he has been grasped by Christ. Paul runs, but not as though he only hoped to obtain: he is reaching out to grasp, but Christ has already grasped him. Paul explains that he does not consider himself to have grasped already, but instead presses on toward the goal of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.

In the context immediately following the passage above, Paul goes on to explain that this should be the mindset of all believers: Christ has grasped us in his resurrection, but we – living out our lives – are running toward that goal, admitting that we have done is nothing, and placing all our confidence in Christ.

After a brief excursis regarding those who have a different mentality, Paul explains that our mentality is different because our citizenship is in heaven, the place from which we expect our deliverer, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform our vile selves like unto his glorious self, according to the operation by which he can subordinate everything to himself.

In other words, Paul recognizes that he will be made righteous only by the power of God, not by his effort. In short, we are vile, but Christ is glorious: our hope is not in our merit, but in Christ’s ability to transform our meritless selves into the likeness of his glory. We run – not motivated by a mere wishful desire to attain – but by a recognition that Christ has already attained for us. We live unto Him, because we are citizens of Heaven, looking forward to the resurrection – the power of God – not at ourselves, but at Him.

A final note is worthy of mention: the Christ whom Paul worships has the power to subdue all things to himself, and Paul’s confidence is in that ability. That trust is inconsistent with any view either that Christ is unable or unwilling to subdue man’s will to himself: in short Paul’s trust in the Power of God is a refutation of synergism.

Praise be to our Risen, Ascended, and Coming-Again Savior!


GNRHead Responds – TurretinFan Rebuts

August 28, 2007

In a previous post, the present blogger had posted a response to a video by GNRHead (link to TurretinFan’s response). Now, GNRHead has provided comments regarding that posting. His comments are reproduced using block quotations below. His response is line-by-line with respect to much of the original post, and accordingly, his quotation of the original post has been retained.

GNRHead writes:

Now if I had been directed to this post earlier I would have done a good job to it, but I was barely shown it so here goes my quick response:

TF responds:
Thanks for your response.

GNRHead writes:

what he posted: A internet poster named William, going by the handle GNRHead, has posted a series of videos on the internet, in which he defends Roman Catholic theology, with an emphasis on patristic issues. This is a response to his most recent video here (link here, warning, near profanity employed).
My response:Near profanity is NEVER in my videos. A complete lie.

TF responds:
A rose by any other name.
Around 45 seconds into your video you use two abbreviated profanities, in summarizing the responses you have received. Hence my warning.

GNRHead writes:

what he says: I also appreciate his apparently sincere belief that the Early Church Fathers held to Roman Catholic doctrines. On the other hand, I firmly disagree.
My response: Good for you, too bad the Early Church was Catholic in it’s decrees and all it’s beliefs. Not Protestant

TF responds:

Such a claim is both obviously false, a bit of a red herring, and undermines GNRHead’s position.

The allegation is obviously false, because the Early Church was not “Catholic” either in the sense of having universal agreement or in the sense of holding to the dogma of the modern Roman Catholic Church.

The allegation is a bit of a red herring, because Protestantism is defined by references to various corruptions in the Roman Catholic Church that were “protested” by the Reformers. Before those corruptions entered, naturally no one protested them. Thus, one does not see an outcry over the use of Indulgences in the Early Church, not because everyone agreed with the modern and/or medieval Roman Catholic views on Indulgences, but because no one had heard of either of those views yet.

The allegation undermines GNRHead’s position, because the Early Church may not have been – to take an example – part of the PCA (or any other modern Protestant body), but they were also not part of the modern Roman Catholic Church.

GNR writes:

what he says:GNRHead states that “every single early church father agrees that Peter was the rock” in Matthew 16:18. That’s simply not true.
My response:It is true, as I demonstrated in my responses to Protestant apologist Moses Flores sloppy videos.

TF responds:

Substantively: no it is not true. But feel free to attempt demonstrate it, if you feel you can.

Formally: calling someone else’s presentation “sloppy” is obviously not a substantive refutation. Calling their presentation “sloppy” in a sentence that contains a grammatical error is at least mildly ironic.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:In my own research, every time before the third century that an Early Church Father explains a metaphorical use of the term “Rock” they make that refer to Christ, not Peter.
My response:Well maybe you should study a bit more, cause your studies are sloppy at that. I have a full video response to this completely uneducated stance on Youtube in video format already. That is an utterly fallacious and sloppy position to hold and I name many many many Fathers that believed otherwise.

TF responds:

Formally: see above, calling something “sloppy,” is not a refutation. The same principle applies to labelling things pejoratively and exhorting one’s opponent to further study. The mild irony above is amplified here, where you use “cause” in place of “because,” misuse the term “fallacious,” and engage in a run-on sentence.
Quasi-Substantively: The thrice repeated “many” with reference to the number of Fathers that believed otherwise is not a substitute for simply enumerating the “Fathers” that supposedly “believed otherwise.”
Substantively: In fact, as your own response below demonstrates, you yourself appear to recognize that many Fathers identified the use of the figure “Rock” in Scripture as pointing to Christ Himself. Thus, your disputation on this point appears to be internally inconsistent. Perhaps you would care to clarify. Do you mean to claim that early Fathers did not identify the figure of “Rock” with Christ, or do you have another claim in mind?

GNRHead writes:

what he says:Likewise, in the Shepherd of Hermas, the rock is Christ, the tower is the church, and the tower is built upon the rock.
My response:No one denies that Christ is the eternal Rock. We agree with that, just as Peter is the vicarious rock. In the Shepherd of Hermas we are not dealing with a refutation of the passage of Mt.16, so your parallelism fails and is sloppy at that.

TF writes:
Formally: See above regarding the “sloppy” argument, with a hint of irony regarding your use of “refutation.”
Substantively: The Shepherd of Hermas is the earliest Christian writing that addresses the church being built on a rock, and explicitly identifies that rock with Christ. The writing does not explicitly reference Matthew 16, but then again, SoH doesn’t refer to any Scripture at all, except, arguably to Moses’ writings: “‘The Lord is near to them who return unto Him,’ as it is written in Eldad and Modat, who prophesied to the people in the wilderness.”
Nevertheless, the Shepherd of Hermas is significant because of its use of the same church-built-on-a-rock figure, and because it explicitly identifies the rock as Christ.
GNRHead writes:

what he says:Indeed, the first time an “Early Church Father” that might be taken to support the view you suggest is Turtullian in his letter against Marcion, some time around the the turn of the 3rd century.
My response: This simply is not true and if anyone wants quotes as proof I will show it, not just blow smoke up your nose.

TF responds:

This author is waiting on tenterhooks for the smoke-free proof. Obviously, there is no way I could demonstrate that there is not some earlier relevant writing, so let’s see some quotations, GNRHead.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:Yet even Turtullian in later writing comments that Peter was called Peter in order to typify Christ, the Rock. And we look back more carefully at what Turtullian wrote in the single passage where Turtullian makes the connection, you will see that Turtullian writes not that Peter was the rock, but that Peter was called the rock.
My response:This is so sloppy it doesn’t deserve a response. First off, it’s TERTULLIAN, as the correct spelling, secondly no one claims Peter was actually a rock in the sense of a Rock you can hold, so your assertion is a failure and makes no sense at all.

TF responds:

I did misspell Tertullian’s name. (And I have no corrected that error in the original post. Thank you for pointing it out to me.)

As for the reply that Peter was not literally a rock, that’s irrelevant: you’ve missed the point of the argument. The point is that Peter was called the rock, but Jesus IS the rock. Of course, Jesus is human, not granite.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:Then Cyprian applies the term rock to Peter, but not just to Peter but to all the bishops of the Church.
my response:I covered this and there’s no disagreement here nor does that contradict the Primacy of the Pope, which Cyprian affirms many times over even out of this quotation.

TF responds:
The alleged primacy of the pope would be an interesting topic for another time.
The point was simply to observe that Cyprian did not uniquely identify Peter with the rock. Since that point appears to be granted, we can move on.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:Firmillian, in contrast, applied the term only to Peter, and mocked Stephen for claiming to sit in the chair of Peter. Both would have been writing toward the middle of the third century.
My response:Looks like someone is desperately grasping at James White arguments, I already fully responded to this in a youtube posting.

TF responds:

Substantively: While the present author will certainly diligently read all of GNRHead’s youtube videos, it would be more useful if the full response (or even an abbreviated response) were provided here, in a media that is more readily searchable.

Formally: Thanks for the James White association. He is a much more well known debunker of RCC myths than I am.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:If you are reckoning Early Church Fathers as those before the council of Nicea, I wonder what makes you think that “all” of them held your view: the vast majority make no reference at all to the subject, and the few who mention it do so in very few places.
My response:you are simply incorrect, the majority make clear reference to this and that direct passage saying that Peter was indeed the Rock, so you are once again in ERROR.

TF responds:
GNRHead’s contentions here are clearly wrong. As noted above, the vast majority of ante-nicean fathers make no mention of the issue. That’s simply a matter of fact. The appropriate rebuttal would be to list the ante-nicean fathers who do address the subject, and (if possible) cite where they address the subject, so the claim could be verified.
There is a simple reason that GNRHead does not provide such a list: the list would not support GNRHead’s exagerated claims.
Capitalizing “ERROR” is not a rebuttal that works here, citing fathers is really the only way to establish the claims that have been made.
Note, however, that GNRHead has switched from “all” to “the majority.” That alone should be enough of a concession to convince any fair-minded person that GNRHead’s original claims were untenable.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:So here’s the challenge to you:Back up your claim that “every single early church father agrees that Peter was the rock” and then reconcile that with Augustine, who explicitly stated that it was mistaken to say that Peter was the rock.
my response:I already proved that each time a Protestant attempts to point to a Father and claim he didn’t view Peter as the Rock that it’s simply untrue. In my video response to a youtuber I pointed out that Augustine held that Christ was also the Rock, but never abandoned his claim to Peter being the Rock, as he STILL calls Peter the Rock in a quotation AFTER the one you are thinking of!

TF replies:
Again, oblique references to youtube videos are not that helpful. Furthermore, rather than simply asserting that “Augustine … never abandoned his claim to Peter being the Rock” it would be helpful if you would provide a citation, so that the reader could confirm whether there is merit in what you have to say. Perhaps, in any event, it would be safer for you not to assume that you know what quotation I’m thinking of, and just present your own demonstration.

The challenge still stands: back up your claim with patristic quotations.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:Finally, note that even Trent does not have your back. After all Trent writes:”For which cause, this council has thought good, that the Symbol of faith which the holy Roman Church makes use of,–as being that principle wherein all who profess the faith of Christ necessarily agree, and that firm and alone foundation against which the gates of hell shall never prevail,–be expressed in the very same words in which it is read in all the churches.”Faith, not Peter, is described as being the foundation by Trent, which if you are to remain RCC, you must be bound to accept as true.
My response:It is true that Faith is the foundation, but unlike your sloppy and sad misreadings, the Church never disavows that Peter is the Rock. You simply are neither an apologist or someone well read in Early Church History or Biblical teachings. Simply because Faith is called a foundation that does not make it that Peter was not the Rock of the Church. Where is your logic. Is illogicality your true armor?

TF responds:
a) Trent does not explicitly say “Peter is not the Rock.” Instead, Trent says that “Faith” is the foundation, and that it is so “alone.” Please feel free to disagree, but please explain how it can be so “alone” and how Peter can also be the foundation?
b) The logical principle involved is the law of the excluded middle. Either faith alone is the foundation, or faith not alone is the foundation: both cannot be true.
c) Formally: “illogicality” – that’s good for a chuckle.
d) No, I use a sword.

GNRHead writes:

what he says:What will it be then? Is Peter or Faith in Christ the Rock in Matthew 16:18?
My response:My response is the LOGICAL one buddy, you cannot SEPARATE Peter’s FAITH from his person nor can you separate the Fact that Christ calls Peter the Rock upon which he will build his Church! It is because of Peter’s revelation from GOD and faith in Christ that he is entrusted with the Keys of the Kingdom and called the Rock! Refute that!

TF responds:

Sure you can separate Peter’s faith from his person. Why couldn’t you? It’s easy to do: I have the faith of the apostle, though I am not him. I believe that Jesus is the Christ, and yet I am not Simon Peter Barjona.

As for the requested refutation, Peter himself refers to Jesus as the Rock, and the keys were given to all the Apostles.

I realize that the fact that Jesus was speaking of Faith in Himself, not about the fisherman from Galilee, may be hard for a Roman Catholic to accept, but it is the truth.


File this under false prophecy plain stupidity

August 26, 2007

“Those who want him to die will be frustrated, because Fidel Castro will never die.”

Hugo Chavez


Two Hypotheses

August 25, 2007

I read with interest this revealing response (link) to James White’s ten questions to a Roman Catholic convert (link).

Let me begin by pointing out that this Roman Catholic poster (purifyyourbride) has taken a more head-on approach than many others. He has actually read and attempted some kind of response to each of Dr. White’s ten questisons.

Perhaps, at a later time, I could critique each answer. Allow me, however, to focus on a particular point that this poster made, in response to Dr. White’s number one question:

“It just seems like you have no clue what the heart of Catholicism is.”

I don’t point this out so much to pick on PYB, as because I have seen this comment or comments like it consistently from lay RC apologists over the years. This type of comment is subject two at least two competing hypthotheses:

1) Purifyyourbride is correct, and Dr. White is clueless about Catholicism; or
2) Dr. White knows more about Catholicism than purifyyourbride.

Now, reading over the other responses that PYB included, I can say with a very high degree of confidence that Dr. White has studied Catholicism in much greater depth than PYB. In fact, I think that PYB would admit as much. Furthermore, I doubt that PYB would be willing to assert that Dr. White is objectively stupid, or even relatively lacking in intelligence compared with PYB. In other words, Dr. White has at least a normal degree of intelligence and has studied the issues in greater depth.

So, given those facts, when I see the comment making a claim like: “It just seems like you have no clue what the heart of Catholicism is,” I’m inclined to believe that the claim is false. The apolgist using the argument is reacting emotionally to the depiction of Catholicism that Dr. White is presenting.

Undoubtedly that is why PYB does not say “Dr. White is clueless about Catholicism” (he does not use those words, any way) but that he is clueless about “the heart of Catholicism.” You see, it is much easier to make a claim about a heart, a gist, a “main point,” etc. than it is to make a particular claim, such as a claim about the “unanimous consent of the fathers” or the alleged regency of Mary.

There is an expression “He missed the forest for the trees,” but does it really seem probable that Dr. White has missed the forest for the trees? It seems unlikely – particularly since people are constantly willing to point out what they believe the forest is (PYB is no exception). So, if Dr. White hasn’t missed the forest for the trees, then there is really no reason to accept the first hypothesis.

What’s the bottom line? The bottom line is that we can reject the “Dr. White is clueless” hypothesis in favor of the “Dr. White actually has a better understanding of Catholicism than most Roman Catholics” hypothesis. That conclusion should give a lot of folks who have placed their trust in Rome based on a less thorough analysis of Rome’s claims a lot of pause.

Let me provide one notable example: The Donation of Constantine. Do you know what it is? Do you know why it is important to the discussion?


Focusing on the Wrong Problem

August 25, 2007

Many people will see this clip (link) and think that the problem is man put asunder what God has joined, i.e. an unbiblical divorce – or even that the problem is that this (apparently improper) action is being done by high-profile professing Christians, thereby bringing Christ’s name into shame.

Those can both be problems, but they miss the bigger – more obvious problem. What was a woman doing being the pastor of a church in the first place? That’s not a woman’s job – that’s not what God calls women to do.

The shocking part of the headline should be the part that suggested that “pastors” were married to each other, not that they are getting a divorce. To complain about their divorce, while ignoring the usurpation of authority by Mrs. White is to strain at a gnat while swallowing a camel.

Incidentally, as far as know, neither of the Whites is any relation to Dr. James White, who has been mentioned on this blog a few times.


Mother Theresa’s Lack of Faith

August 25, 2007

Here is an article (link) that suggests that MT admitted that she did not have faith in Christ.
Roman Catholic fans will undoubtedly not be deterred from continuing toward having her declared a “saint” by the Vatican.

Scripture says:

Rom 14:23 And he that doubteth is damned if he eat, because he eateth not of faith: for whatsoever is not of faith is sin.

And again:

Heb 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

May God strengthen the gift of faith that He has given us, that we may please Him, and may He give that gift to those who walk by who do not have it yet,



Here’s another article dealing with the same issue (link). MT apparently doubted the reality of Christ’s physical presence in the Eucharist, which led to doubts about God’s existence. It’s a natural progression, and one great reason not to continue the false claims that Christ the bread is literally Christ’s body.

From the Department of Questionable Diplomacy

August 24, 2007

Comes this odd entry (link).

This updated report seems somewhat less troubling (link).

May God grant peace between the (professing) Christian nations of Georgia and Russia.



Syria tries to pick off an Israeli aircraft. (link)

Incidentally, this approach by the British and Norse is much more sensible (link) (link).

Fallibility of the Senses

August 23, 2007

Look out, Evidentialists and Quasi-Evidentialists, for this interesting demonstration of the fallibility of the senses. (link).

Thanks be to God for Propositional Revelation,



Some readers seem to think that the example in the link above is a fraud, and that the two tiles are not the same color. For their benefit, I’ve linked to a second, similar, illusion:
(link), as well as to a further demonstration of the original illusion (link).

Theonomy – Capital Punishment

August 20, 2007

God justly ordered that the following crimes be punished by death, and consequently it cannot be said that death is an unjust punishment for the following crimes:

Heb 2:2 For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;

First Commandment – Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods Before Me

Forsaking God to Worship Anything Else
Deuteronomy 17:2-5
2If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wickedness in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing his covenant, 3And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded; 4And it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, and enquired diligently, and, behold, it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel: 5Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die.

Attempted Spiritual Seduction

By Those with Miraculous Gifts (or claims thereof)
Deuteronomy 13:1-5
1If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder, 2And the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them; 3Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the LORD your God proveth you, to know whether ye love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. 4Ye shall walk after the LORD your God, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, and cleave unto him. 5And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn you away from the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee.

By One’s Relatives
Deuteronomy 13:6-11
6If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers; 7Namely, of the gods of the people which are round about you, nigh unto thee, or far off from thee, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; 8Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him: 9But thou shalt surely kill him; thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people. 10And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he hath sought to thrust thee away from the LORD thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage. 11And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is among you.

Second Commandment – Thou Shalt Not Make unto Thee any Graven Image, or any Likeness of Anything that is in Heaven Above or in Earth Beneath or in the Water Under the Earth, thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them nor serve them, for I the Lord thy God am a Jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth [generation] of them that hate me, and showing mercy unto thousands [of generations] of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

Worshipping God in a State of Uncleanness

Approaching the Holy things unworthily
Leviticus 22:3 Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all your seed among your generations, that goeth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from my presence: I am the LORD.

Defiling the Tabernacle
Numbers 19:13 Whosoever toucheth the dead body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself, defileth the tabernacle of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from Israel: because the water of separation was not sprinkled upon him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him.

Defiling the Sanctuary
Numbers 19:20 But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from among the congregation, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD: the water of separation hath not been sprinkled upon him; he is unclean.

Exodus 30:17-21
17And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 18Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein. 19For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat: 20When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the LORD: 21So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.

(Several additional passages could be added regarding the particular of how the high priest and the priests must be appareled, and which families may not enter or do various things, upon pain of death, apparently by the hand of God.)

Eating the Peace Offering Unworthily
Leviticus 7:20-21
20But the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, that pertain unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people. 21Moreover the soul that shall touch any unclean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or any unclean beast, or any abominable unclean thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which pertain unto the LORD, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.

Child Sacrifice (This may also properly fall under the 1st commandment, 3rd commandment, 6th commandment, and/or 5th commandment.)
Leviticus 20:2-5
2Again, thou shalt say to the children of Israel, Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death: the people of the land shall stone him with stones. 3And I will set my face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people; because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile my sanctuary, and to profane my holy name. 4And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and kill him not: 5Then I will set my face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go a whoring after him, to commit whoredom with Molech, from among their people.

Leviticus 18:21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.

Occult Practices

Actually Practicing the Dark Arts
Leviticus 20:27 A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be upon them.

Exodus 22:18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.

Soliciting the Services of the Practitioners of the Dark Arts (though perhaps this was to be administered by God Himself)
Leviticus 20:6 And the soul that turneth after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, I will even set my face against that soul, and will cut him off from among his people.

Failing to Practice the Sacraments (possibly to be administered by God Himself)

Failure to Circumcise One’s Boy (nearly administered by God against Moses)
Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

Failure to Partake of the Passover without excuse
Exodus 12:15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.

Exodus 12:19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.

Numbers 9:13 But the man that is clean, and is not in a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, even the same soul shall be cut off from among his people: because he brought not the offering of the LORD in his appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.

Making Offerings and Sacrifices without Presenting them to God at the appointed place (possibly to be administered by God)
Leviticus 17:3-4
3What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, 4And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people:

Leviticus 17:8-9
8And thou shalt say unto them, Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers which sojourn among you, that offereth a burnt offering or sacrifice, 9And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto the LORD; even that man shall be cut off from among his people.

Third Commandment – Thou Shalt not Take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain

Leviticus 24:10-16
10And the son of an Israelitish woman, whose father was an Egyptian, went out among the children of Israel: and this son of the Israelitish woman and a man of Israel strove together in the camp; 11And the Israelitish woman’s son blasphemed the name of the LORD, and cursed. And they brought him unto Moses: (and his mother’s name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan:) 12And they put him in ward, that the mind of the LORD might be shewed them. 13And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 14Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him. 15And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin. 16And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of the LORD, shall be put to death.

Profanity of God’s name (Apparently administered by God)
Leviticus 18:21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.

Contempt of the Law of God / Willful and Presumptious Sin (though perhaps to be administered directly by God)
Numbers 15:30-31
30But the soul that doeth ought presumptuously, whether he be born in the land, or a stranger, the same reproacheth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 31Because he hath despised the word of the LORD, and hath broken his commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off; his iniquity shall be upon him.

Eating of a Peace Offering that is Older than Three days (apparently to be administered by God)
Leviticus 19:5-8
5And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace offerings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it at your own will. 6It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow: and if ought remain until the third day, it shall be burnt in the fire. 7And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is abominable; it shall not be accepted. 8Therefore every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the hallowed thing of the LORD: and that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

Eating What is to be Sacrificed to God (apparently to be administered by God)
Leviticus 7:25 For whosoever eateth the fat of the beast, of which men offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, even the soul that eateth it shall be cut off from his people.

Eating any kind of Blood / Vampirism (apparently to be administered by God)
Leviticus 7:27 Whatsoever soul it be that eateth any manner of blood, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.

Leviticus 17:10 And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of blood; I will even set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people.

(Those who take a quasi-literal view of the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper should be prepared to explain why Jesus commanded his disciples to violate the law, by drinking human blood.)

Trespass on Sinai
Exodus 19:12-13
12And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death: 13There shall not an hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.

Alien Trespass on the Tabernacle Area
Numbers 1:51 And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down: and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up: and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.

Numbers 3:38 But those that encamp before the tabernacle toward the east, even before the tabernacle of the congregation eastward, shall be Moses, and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary for the charge of the children of Israel; and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.

(Recall that the Jews falsely accused Paul of this capital offense as applied to the Temple, namely of bringing Greeks into the temple.)

Alien Trespass on the Priestly Office
Numbers 3:10 And thou shalt appoint Aaron and his sons, and they shall wait on their priest’s office: and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.

Numbers 18:7 Therefore thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest’s office for every thing of the altar, and within the vail; and ye shall serve: I have given your priest’s office unto you as a service of gift: and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.

False Prophecy
Deuteronomy 18:20-22
20But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die. 21And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken? 22When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.

Mixing the Priestly Duties and Alcohol (Apparently to be administered by God)
Leviticus 10:8-11
8And the LORD spake unto Aaron, saying, 9Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations: 10And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean; 11And that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.

Making, Using, or Imitating Holy Oil except as Required (possibly to be administered by God)
Exodus 30:22-33
22Moreover the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels, 24And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin: 25And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil. 26And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and the ark of the testimony, 27And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of incense, 28And the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and the laver and his foot. 29And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy: whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy. 30And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office. 31And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations. 32Upon man’s flesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any other like it, after the composition of it: it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you. 33Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people.

Making, Using, or Imitating Incense except as Required (possibly to be administered by God)
Exodus 30:34-38
34And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight: 35And thou shalt make it a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy: 36And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with thee: it shall be unto you most holy. 37And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto thee holy for the LORD. 38Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people.

Fourth Commandment – Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it Holy, six days shalt thou labour and do all thy work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God, in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates, for in six dayhs the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day, wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.


The Weekly Sabbath
Exodus 31:14-15
14Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 15Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.

Exodus 35:2 Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you an holy day, a sabbath of rest to the LORD: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death.

Numbers 15:32-35
32And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. 33And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. 34And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. 35And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp.

(As a grammatical matter, note that “soul … cut off” just means that they died physically.)

The Day of the Atonement
Leviticus 23:27-32
28Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD. 28And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God. 29For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people. 30And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people. 31Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. 32It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.

Fifth Commandment – Honor thy Father and thy Mother that they days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee

Exodus 21:17 And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

Leviticus 20:9 For every one that curseth his father or his mother shall be surely put to death: he hath cursed his father or his mother; his blood shall be upon him.

Contraparental Rebellion
Deuteronomy 21:18-21
18If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, which will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and that, when they have chastened him, will not hearken unto them: 19Then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place; 20And they shall say unto the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard. 21And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die: so shalt thou put evil away from among you; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.

Parent Battery
Exodus 21:15 And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death.

Sixth Commandment – Thou Shalt Not Kill

Leviticus 24:17 And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death.

Leviticus 24:21 And he that killeth a beast, he shall restore it: and he that killeth a man, he shall be put to death.

Battery resulting in death
Exodus 21:12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.

Numbers 35:16-18
16And if he smite him with an instrument of iron, so that he die, he is a murderer: the murderer shall surely be put to death. 17And if he smite him with throwing a stone, wherewith he may die, and he die, he is a murderer: the murderer shall surely be put to death. 18Or if he smite him with an hand weapon of wood, wherewith he may die, and he die, he is a murderer: the murderer shall surely be put to death.

Numbers 35:20-21
20But if he thrust him of hatred, or hurl at him by laying of wait, that he die; 21Or in enmity smite him with his hand, that he die: he that smote him shall surely be put to death; for he is a murderer: the revenger of blood shall slay the murderer, when he meeteth him.

Negligent Homicide by One’s Beast
Exodus 21:29 But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.

(note that the beast also gets the death penalty)

Seventh Commandment – Thou Shalt Not Commit Adultery

Deuteronomy 22:20-21
20But if this thing be true, and the tokens of virginity be not found for the damsel: 21Then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die: because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to play the whore in her father’s house: so shalt thou put evil away from among you.

Contra-Marital Sexual Relations

Adultery with a married woman
Leviticus 20:10 And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

Deuteronomy 22:22 If a man be found lying with a woman married to an husband, then they shall both of them die, both the man that lay with the woman, and the woman: so shalt thou put away evil from Israel.

Leviticus 18:20 Moreover thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her.

Fornication with (and by – if consenting) an Engaged woman
Deuteronomy 22:23-24
23 If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto an husband, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her; 24Then ye shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die; the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbour’s wife: so thou shalt put away evil from among you.

Incest, to wit Sexual Relationships “Near Kin”
Leviticus 18:6 None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness: I am the LORD.

Including: Parent
Leviticus 18:7 The nakedness of thy father, or the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

Including Step-mother
Leviticus 18:8 The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness.

Leviticus 20:11 And the man that lieth with his father’s wife hath uncovered his father’s nakedness: both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

Including Sister and Half-sister (even if born in another house, with polygamy it would be possible for a half-sister to be born in the same house)
Leviticus 18:9 The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or daughter of thy mother, whether she be born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover.

Leviticus 18:11 The nakedness of thy father’s wife’s daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

(I really question whether the translation / transmission of verse 9 or 11 may be errant. I suspect that verse 11 is conveying that she is to be considered as though she were begotten by one’s father, meaning that sexual relations with no-blood step-sisters would also be prohibited. The LXX does not enlighten the matter, and I would give very little – if any – weight to Jewish traditions regarding the matter.)

Leviticus 20:17 And if a man shall take his sister, his father’s daughter, or his mother’s daughter, and see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness; it is a wicked thing; and they shall be cut off in the sight of their people: he hath uncovered his sister’s nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity.

Including Granddaughters
Leviticus 18:10 The nakedness of thy son’s daughter, or of thy daughter’s daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover: for theirs is thine own nakedness.

Including Both Paternal and Maternal Aunts (presumably including the widow of one’s uncle)
Leviticus 18:12-14
12Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s sister: she is thy father’s near kinswoman. 13Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister: for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman. 14Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt.

Leviticus 20:19-20
19And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister, nor of thy father’s sister: for he uncovereth his near kin: they shall bear their iniquity. 20And if a man shall lie with his uncle’s wife, he hath uncovered his uncle’s nakedness: they shall bear their sin; they shall die childless.

Including Daughters-in-law
Leviticus 18:15 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter in law: she is thy son’s wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

Leviticus 20:12 And if a man lie with his daughter in law, both of them shall surely be put to death: they have wrought confusion; their blood shall be upon them.

Including Sisters-in-law
Leviticus 18:16 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife: it is thy brother’s nakedness.

Leviticus 20:21 And if a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.

(though there was a “leverite” exception if the brother had died childless)

Including One’s wife’s grandmother, mother, daughter, or granddaughter
Leviticus 18:17 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou take her son’s daughter, or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness.

Including One’s wife’s sister while the wife lives
Leviticus 18:18 Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life time

Sexual relationship with a woman who is “put apart for her uncleanness” (and having sexual relations when a woman has been so put apart)
Leviticus 18:19 Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness.

Leviticus 20:18 And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness; he hath discovered her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood: and both of them shall be cut off from among their people.

(A woman of marriageable age would be expected to be “put apart” about one week per month when she was not with child.)

Male Homosexuality
Leviticus 20:13 If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

Leviticus 18:22 Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.

Beastiality – both male and female
Exodus 22:19 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.

Leviticus 18:23 Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith: neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto: it is confusion.

Leviticus 20:15-16
15And if a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death: and ye shall slay the beast. 16And if a woman approach unto any beast, and lie down thereto, thou shalt kill the woman, and the beast: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

(note that the beast also gets the death penalty)

Eighth Commandment – Thou Shalt not Steal

Kidnapping/Selling Kidnapped Person/Holding Kidnapped Person
Exodus 21:16 And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.

Ninth Commandment – Thou Shalt not Bear False Witness against thy Neighbor

False Testimony as to a Capital Crime
Deuteronomy 19:16-21
16If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; 17Then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the LORD, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; 18And the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; 19Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you. 20And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you. 21And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.

Tenth Commandment – Thou Shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.

(No Crimes punishable by death in this category.)


In contrast, the following are explicitly NOT punishable by death

Being related to a wrong-doer
Deuteronomy 24:16 The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for his own sin.

Merely Cursing God (though possibly, “shall bear his sin,” should be viewed conjointly rather than disjointly with “shall die” in the following verse)
Leviticus 24:15 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin.

Certain Crimes against Slaves

Seducing one’s engaged slave girl
Leviticus 19:20 And whosoever lieth carnally with a woman, that is a bondmaid, betrothed to an husband, and not at all redeemed, nor freedom given her; she shall be scourged; they shall not be put to death, because she was not free.

Battery that results in the delayed death of one’s own slave
Exodus 21:20-21
20And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished. 21Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.

Battery by one’s animal on a slave (apparently, even if the battery results in death of the slave)
Exodus 21:32 If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

(note, however, that the animal is still to be stoned)

Battery that results in the death of an unborn child (unless the mother also dies)
Exodus 21:22-25
22If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman’s husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. 23And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, 24Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

Purely accidental killing
Numbers 35:11 Then ye shall appoint you cities to be cities of refuge for you; that the slayer may flee thither, which killeth any person at unawares.

Numbers 35:22-23
22But if he thrust him suddenly without enmity, or have cast upon him any thing without laying of wait, 23Or with any stone, wherewith a man may die, seeing him not, and cast it upon him, that he die, and was not his enemy, neither sought his harm:

Battery (even if it results in death) by one’s animal unexpectedly
Exodus 21:28 If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.

(note, however, that the animal receives the death penalty)

Battery that only results in injury, not death
Exodus 21:18-19
18And if men strive together, and one smite another with a stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed: 19If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.

Being forced (or seduced in a place where resistance is futile) as a betrothed woman
Deuteronomy 22:25-27
25But if a man find a betrothed damsel in the field, and the man force her, and lie with her: then the man only that lay with her shall die: 26But unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death: for as when a man riseth against his neighbour, and slayeth him, even so is this matter: 27For he found her in the field, and the betrothed damsel cried, and there was none to save her.

Fornication with a single (unmarried and not engaged) woman
Deuteronomy 22:28-29
28If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found; 29Then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his days.

(but note that there is a penalty of life marriage without the possibility of divorce)


The author of the present blog invites comments on, additions to, or subtractions from this list by any reader.


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